ABAP Programming training study material – pdf guide

SAP R/3 applications are written in the ABAP programming language, and run within the application layer of the R/3 System.ABAP programs communicate with the database management system of the central relational database (RDBMS), and with the graphical user interface (SAPgui) at presentation level.This training material provides a complete details about ABAP programming.

Contents of this ABAP Programming training study material – pdf guide

Introduction to ABAP 19
The R/3 Basis System: Overview 20
Position of the Basis System Within the R/3 System…… 21
Application Servers  27
Work Processes ….. 32
Overview of the Components of Application Programs  37
Structure of an Application Program ………… 38
Screens …………….. 40
Structure of ABAP Programs …. 44
Processing Blocks in ABAP Programs……… 49
ABAP Statements .. 56
Logical Databases and Contexts …………….. 60
Memory Structures of an ABAP Program …. 66
Creating and Changing ABAP Programs…… 68
Opening a Program from the Repository Browser………. 70
Opening Programs in the ABAP Editor …….. 73
Opening Programs Using Forward Navigation …………… 74
Maintaining Program Attributes. 75
Editing Programs…. 79
The ABAP Programming Language ………….. 82
ABAP Syntax…………. 83
Types and Objects …. 87
Basic Statements …… 90
Data Types and Data Objects… 91
Data Types…….. 92
Defining Data Types ……. 96
Predefined ABAP Types…………… 97
Local Data Types in Programs … 100
Data Types in the ABAP Dictionary…………… 105
The TYPE Addition ……. 112
The LIKE Addition……… 116
Data Objects … 118
Literals ……. 119
Text Symbols ……………. 121
Variables…. 123
Constants… 129
Interface Work Areas…. 130
Predefined Data Objects……………… 132
Compatibility… 133
Determining the Attributes of Data Objects …………. 135
Examples of Data Types and Objects .. 140
Processing Data… 143
Assigning Values …………… 144Assigning Values with MOVE………. 145
Assigning Values with WRITE TO… 148
Resetting Values to Their Initial Value……………. 150
Numerical Operations …….. 151
Arithmetic Calculations . 152
Mathematical Functions 156
Business Calculations… 158
Date and Time Calculations…………. 159
Processing Character Strings …………… 161
Shifting Field Contents.. 162
Replacing Field Contents…………….. 165
Converting to Upper or Lower Case or Replacing Characters …………….. 167
Converting into a Sortable Format… 168
Overlaying Character Fields ………… 169
Finding Character Strings……………. 170
Finding the Length of a Character String………… 173
Condensing Field Contents …………. 174
Concatenating Character Strings …. 175
Splitting Character Strings…………… 176
Assigning Parts of Character Strings……………… 177
Single Bit Processing in Hexadecimal Fields……….. 178
Setting and Reading Bits …………….. 179
Bit Operations …………… 181
Set Operations Using Bit Sequences …………….. 183
Type Conversions ………….. 186
Conversion Rules for Elementary Data Types … 187
Conversion Rules for References…. 191
Conversion Rules for Structures…… 192
Conversion Rules for Internal Tables …………….. 194
Alignment of Data Objects…………… 195
Processing Sections of Strings …………. 196
Field Symbols and Data References ……… 200
Field Symbols . 201
Defining Field Symbols . 203
Assigning Data Objects to Field Symbols……….. 207
Basic Form of the ASSIGN Statement ………. 208
Assigning Components of Structures to a Field Symbol .. 213
Defining the Data Type of a Field Symbol….. 215
Data Areas for Field Symbols….. 217
Data References ……………. 219
Reference Variables ….. 220
Creating Data Objects Dynamically. 221
Getting References to Data Objects 222
Dereferencing Data References …… 223
Data References: Example………….. 224
Logical Expressions ……………. 225
Comparisons Between Different Data Types……….. 226
Comparing Strings …………. 230
Comparing Bit Sequences . 233
Checking Whether a Field Belongs to a Range……. 235
Checking for the Initial Value ……………. 236
Checking Selection Criteria 237
Checking Whether a Field Symbol is Assigned……. 238
Combining Several Logical Expressions …………….. 239
Controlling the Program Flow.. 240
Branching Conditionally ….. 242
Loops …………. 245
Processing Large Volumes of Data…………. 250
Internal tables……. 251
Creating Internal Tables….. 254
Internal table types ……. 255
Internal table objects….. 259
Special Features of Standard Tables …………….. 261
Processing Internal Tables  263
Operations on Entire Internal Tables……………… 264
Assigning Internal Tables ……….. 265
Initializing Internal Tables……….. 267
Comparing Internal Tables ……… 269
Sorting Internal Tables …………… 271
Internal Tables as Interface Parameters ……. 276
Determining the Attributes of Internal Tables 277
Operations on Individual Lines …….. 278
Operations for all Table Types … 281
Inserting Lines into Tables …. 282
Appending Summarized Lines …………….. 285
Reading Lines of Tables…….. 287
Changing Lines .. 292
Deleting Lines….. 295
Processing Table Entries in Loops……….. 299
Operations for Index Tables ……. 306
Appending Table Lines………. 307
Inserting Lines Using the Index……………. 311
Reading Lines Using the Index ……………. 314
Binary Search in Standard Tables ……….. 315
Finding Character Strings in Internal Tables…………… 316
Changing Table Lines Using the Index …. 318
Deleting Lines Using the Index ……………. 321
Specifying the Index in Loops ……………… 324
Access Using Field Symbols ……….. 326
Using Header Lines as Work Areas  328
Extracts …………… 331
Defining an Extract…………. 332
Filling an Extract with Data  334
Processing Extracts ……….. 336
Reading an Extract ……. 337
Sorting an Extract ……… 340
Processing Control Levels …………… 343
Calculating Numbers and Totals ….. 347
Formatting Data…. 350
Example of Formatted Data ……………… 351
Formatting Data During Reading ………. 353
Refining Data Using Internal Tables ….. 355
Formatting Data Using Extracts ………… 359
Saving Data Externally…………… 361
Saving Data Objects as Clusters …………… 362
Data Clusters in ABAP Memory………… 363
Saving Data Objects in Memory …… 364
Reading Data Objects from Memory ……………… 365
Deleting Data Clusters from Memory …………….. 367
Data Clusters in the Database………….. 368
Cluster Databases …….. 369
Structure of a Cluster Database . 370
Example of a Cluster Database.. 372
Saving Data Objects in Cluster Databases …….. 374
Creating a Directory of a Data Cluster……………. 376
Reading Data Objects From Cluster Databases  378
Deleting Data Clusters from Cluster Databases. 380
Open SQL Statements and Cluster Databases.. 382
Working with Files  384
Working with Files on the Application Server ………. 385
File Handling in ABAP .. 386
Opening a File ……… 387
Basic Form of the OPEN DATASET Statement………. 388
Opening a File for Read Access ………….. 389
Opening a File for Write Access…………… 390
Opening a File for Appending Data………. 393
Using Binary Mode……………. 395
Using Text Mode  397
Opening a File at a Given Position……….. 399
Executing Operating System Commands  401
Receiving Operating System Messages .. 402
Closing a File……….. 403
Deleting a File………. 404
Writing Data to Files ….. 405
Reading Data from Files ……………… 407
Automatic Checks in File Operations …………….. 409
Authorization Checks for Programs and Files ……………… 410
General Checks for File Access . 413
Working with Files on the Presentation Server…….. 416
Writing Data to Presentation Server (Dialog) ….. 417
Writing Data to Presentation Server (no Dialog)  420
Reading Data from Presentation Server (Dialog)……………… 423
Reading Data from Presentation Server (no Dialog)…………. 426
Checking Files on the Presentation Server …….. 428
Using Platform-Independent Filenames ……………… 431
Maintaining Syntax Groups………….. 432
Assigning Operating Systems to Syntax Groups ……………… 433
Creating and Defining Logical Paths ……………… 435
Creating and Defining Logical Filenames……….. 437
Using Logical Files in ABAP Programs ………….. 438
Modularization Techniques……. 441
Source Code Modules…………. 443
Macros ………… 444
Include Programs…………… 447
Procedures………. 449
Subroutines…. 451
Defining Subroutines …. 452
Global Data from the Main Program………….. 453
Local Data in the Subroutine …… 455
The Parameter Interface…………. 459
Terminating Subroutines ………… 464
Calling Subroutines……. 466
Naming Subroutines  467
Passing Parameters to Subroutines………….. 470
Examples of Subroutines………… 472
Shared Data Areas .. 477
Function Modules…………… 480
Function Groups ……….. 481
Calling Function Modules ……………. 483
Creating Function Modules………….. 488
Organization of External Procedure Calls……………. 494
Special Techniques. 496
Catchable Runtime Errors……. 497
Program Checks ……………. 498
Catching Runtime Errors…. 500
Checking Authorizations ……… 502
Checking User Authorizations…………… 504
Defining an Authorization Check ………. 505
Checking the Runtime of Program Segments…………… 508
GET RUN TIME FIELD…… 509
Runtime Measurement of Database Accesses…….. 511
Generating and Running Programs Dynamically………. 513
Creating a New Program Dynamically.. 514
Changing Existing Programs Dynamically…………… 516
Running Programs Created Dynamically…………….. 517
Creating and Starting Temporary Subroutines …….. 520
ABAP User Dialogs . 523
Screens. 524
Screen Elements.. 526
Screen Attributes …………… 527
Screen Elements……………. 528
Screen Fields .. 530
Screen Flow Logic …………. 532
Processing Screens ……………. 534
User Actions on Screens … 535
Processing Input/Output Fields ……. 537
Pushbuttons on the Screen …………. 542
Checkboxes and Radio Buttons with Function Codes ………. 545
Using GUI Statuses …… 548
Reading Function Codes …………….. 555
Finding Out the Cursor Position …… 557
Calling ABAP Dialog Modules…………… 560
Simple Module Calls ….. 562
Controlling the Data Transfer ………. 565
Calling Modules Unconditionally…… 568
Conditional Module Calls …………….. 572
Input Checks … 577
Automatic Input Checks 578
Checking Fields in the Screen Flow Logic………. 581
Input Checks in Dialog Modules …… 584
Field Help, Input Help, and Dropdown Boxes………. 589
Field Help… 590
Input Help… 595
Input Help from the ABAP Dictionary ………… 596
Input Help on the Screen………… 601
Input Help in Dialog Modules ….. 603
Dropdown Boxes ………. 607
Modifying Screens Dynamically………… 611
Setting Attributes Dynamically……… 612
The Field Selection Function ……….. 620
Setting the Cursor Position………….. 631
Switching on Hold Data Dynamically……………… 633
Complex Screen Elements…… 635
Status Icons …. 636
Context Menus 639
Subscreens ….. 647
Tabstrip Controls……………. 653
Custom Controls ……………. 661
Table Controls. 669
Using the LOOP Statement …………. 670
Looping Through an Internal Table . 671
Example Transaction: Table Controls ……………. 672
Looping Directly Through a Screen Table ………. 676
How the System Transfers Data Values…………. 678
Using Step Loops ……… 679
Selection Screens … 681
Selection Screens and Logical Databases  683
Defining Selection Screens….. 686
Defining Input Fields for Single Values. 689
Basic Form of Parameters…………… 690
Dynamic Dictionary Reference …….. 691
Default Values for Parameters …….. 692
SPA/GPA Parameters as Default Values……….. 693
Allowing Parameters to Accept Upper and Lower Case ……. 694
Reducing the Visible Length………… 695
Defining Required Fields …………….. 696
Search Helps for Parameters ………. 697
Checking Input Values.. 698
Defining Checkboxes…. 699
Defining Radio Buttons. 700
Hiding Input Fields …….. 701
Modifying Input Fields… 702
Defining Complex Selections……………. 703
Selection Tables ……….. 704
Basic Form of Selection Criteria …… 707
Selection Criteria and Logical Databases……….. 711
Default Values for Selection Criteria 713
Restricting Entry to One Row ………. 715
Restricting Entry to Single Fields….. 716
Additional Options for Selection Criteria…………. 717
Formatting Selection Screens…………… 718
Blank Lines, Underlines, and Comments ……….. 719
Several Elements in a Single Line… 721
Blocks of Elements ……. 723
Calling Selection Screens ……. 724
Calling Standard Selection Screens ….. 725
Calling User-Defined Selection Screens……………… 726
User Actions on Selection Screens………… 732
Pushbuttons on the Selection Screen… 733
Checkboxes and Radio Buttons with Function Codes……………. 735
Pushbuttons in the Application Toolbar  736
Changing the Standard GUI Status …… 738
Selection Screen Processing .. 739
Basic Form…… 742
PBO of the Selection Screen ……………. 743
Processing Single Fields…. 744
Processing Blocks………….. 745
Processing Radio Buttons.. 746
Processing Multiple Selections …………. 747
Defining Field Help…………. 748
Defining Input Help ………… 750
Subscreens and Tabstrip Controls on Selection Screens …………… 753
Selection Screens as Subscreens …….. 754
Tabstrip Controls on Selection Screens ……………… 758
Subscreens on Selection Screens…….. 762
Using Selection Criteria……….. 764
Selection Tables in the WHERE Clause……………… 765
Selection Tables in Logical Expressions …………….. 766
Selection Tables in GET Events ……….. 769
Lists …… 771
Creating Lists ……. 773
Creating Simple Lists with the WRITE Statement … 774
The WRITE Statement.. 775
Positioning WRITE Output on the List ……………. 778
Formatting Options ……. 780
Displaying Symbols and Icons on the List ………. 782
Blank Lines and Drawing Lines ……. 783
Displaying Field Contents as Checkboxes ……… 784
Using WRITE via a Statement Structure ………… 785
Creating Complex Lists…… 788
The Standard List ……… 789
Structure of the Standard List….. 790
GUI Status for the Standard List  792
The Self-Defined List …. 795
Individual Page Header ………….. 796
Determining the List Width ……… 798
Creating Blank Lines ……………… 799
Determining the Page Length….. 801
Defining a Page Footer…………… 803
Lists with Several Pages……………… 805
Programming Page Breaks …….. 806
Standard Page Headers of Individual Pages  809
Page length of individual pages . 811
Page Width of List Levels ……….. 814
Scrolling in Lists………… 815
Scrolling Window by Window ….. 816
Scrolling by Pages… 817
Scrolling to the Margins of the List ……………. 819
Scrolling by Columns……………… 820
Defining Where the User Can Scroll on a Page…………… 822
Laying Out List Pages… 825
Positioning the Output ……………. 826
Absolute Positioning………….. 827
Relative Positioning…………… 829
Formatting Output…. 832
The FORMAT Statement……. 833
Colors in Lists 834
Enabling Fields for Input .. 839
Outputting Fields as Hotspots…………. 840
Special Output Formats …….. 842
Lines in Lists……. 846
Interactive Lists …. 854
Detail Lists……. 855
Dialog Status for Lists …….. 860
Context Menus for Lists ….. 866
List Events in an ABAP Program ………. 868
Lists in Dialog Boxes………. 872
Passing Data from Lists to Programs … 874
Passing Data Automatically…………. 875
Passing Data by Program Statements …………… 877
Manipulating Detail Lists …. 886
Scrolling in Detail Lists.. 887
Setting the Cursor from within the Program ……. 889
Modifying List Lines …… 892
Lists and Screens. 895
Starting Lists from Screen Processing.. 896
Calling Screens from List Processing … 900
Printing Lists…….. 904
Printing a List after Creating it…………… 905
Printing a List while Creating it………….. 907
Print Parameters……….. 908
Execute and Print ……… 909
Printing from within the Program ….. 912
Printing Lists from a Called Program……………… 916
Print Control …. 919
Determining Left and Upper Margins……………… 920
Determining the Print Format ………. 922
Documentation Not Available in Release 4.6C…….. 926
Messages ……………. 927
Message Management………… 928
Messages………… 929
Message Processing…………… 931
Messages Without Screens ……………… 932
Messages on Screens ……. 933
Messages on Selection Screens ………. 934
Messages in Lists ………….. 935
Messages in Function Modules and Methods ……… 936
Running ABAP Programs………. 937
Defining Processing Blocks…… 940
Event blocks…….. 941
Dialog modules …. 944
Running Programs Directly – Reports……… 945
Linking to a Logical Database. 947
Report Transactions……………. 951
Event Blocks in Executable Programs ……. 952
Description of Events ……… 953
INITIALIZATION ……….. 954
AT SELECTION-SCREEN…………… 956
START-OF-SELECTION…………….. 957
GET……….. 958
GET … LATE……………. 961
END-OF-SELECTION .. 963
Leaving Event Blocks……… 966
Leaving Event Blocks Using STOP . 967
Leaving Event Blocks Using EXIT … 970
Leaving Event Blocks Using CHECK …………….. 974
Leaving a GET Event Block Using REJECT …… 979
Dialog-Driven Programs: Transactions …… 982
Dialog Programs: Overview …. 983
Sample Transaction ……….. 987
Maintaining Transactions …….. 995
Dialog Transactions ……….. 996
Report Transactions……….. 997
Variant Transactions ………. 998
Parameter Transaction …… 999
Screen Sequences……………. 1000
Static Next Screen ……….. 1002
Dynamic Next Screen …… 1004
Leaving a Screen from a Program…… 1006
Starting a Screen Sequence…………… 1007
Calling Modal Dialog Boxes ……………. 1010
Screen Sequences: Example Transaction…………. 1011
Calling Programs… 1016
Calling Executable Programs 1018
Filling the Selection Screen of a Called Program.. 1019
Affecting Lists in Called Programs…… 1023
Program Statements to Leave a Called Program.. 1025
Calling Transactions………….. 1027
Calling Screen Sequences as Modules … 1028
Passing Data Between Programs ………… 1032
Filling an Initial Screen using SPA/GPA Parameters …………… 1033
ABAP Database Access……….. 1037
Accessing the Database in the R/3 System…………….. 1038
Open SQL………….. 1041
Reading Data ….. 1043
Defining Selections ………. 1045
Specifying a Target Area . 1052
Specifying Database Tables …………… 1058
Selecting Lines…………….. 1064
Grouping Lines…………….. 1072
Selecting Groups of Lines 1075
Specifying a Sort Order…. 1077
Subqueries …. 1080
Using a Cursor to Read Data………….. 1084
Locking Conflicts………….. 1089
Changing Data … 1090
Inserting Lines into Tables ……………… 1091
Changing Lines ……………. 1094
Deleting Lines ……………… 1097
Inserting or Changing Lines……………. 1100
Committing Database Changes………. 1102
Performance Notes …………… 1103
Keep the Result Set Small ……………… 1106
Minimize the Amount of Data Transferred…………. 1107
Minimize the Number of Data Transfers ……………. 1108
Minimize the Search Overhead……….. 1110
Reduce the Database Load ……………. 1112
Native SQL …………. 1114
Native SQL for Oracle ……….. 1119
Native SQL for Informix……… 1137
Native SQL for DB2 Common Server …… 1152
Logical Databases. 1163
Structure of Logical Databases……………. 1166
Selection Views.. 1173
Example of a Logical Database …………… 1175
Using Logical Databases …… 1179
Linking a Logical DB to an Executable Program … 1181
Calling a Logical Database Using a Function Module ………….. 1185
Editing Logical Databases….. 1191
Creating a Logical Database…………… 1192
Processing the Structure.. 1194
Editing a Search Help …… 1196
Editing Selections ………… 1197
Editing the Database Program………… 1201
Dynamic Selections in the Database Program. 1208
Field Selections in the Database Program ……. 1212
Search Helps in the Database Program……….. 1215
Independent Calls and the Database Program  1219
Editing Other Components……………… 1220
Improving Performance…. 1221
Using Contexts …… 1223
What are Contexts? ………….. 1224
The Context Builder in the ABAP Workbench…………. 1225
Creating and Editing a Context……….. 1226
Using Tables as Modules ………….. 1228
Using Function Modules as Modules……………. 1231
Using Contexts as Modules……….. 1234
Testing a Context…………. 1236
Buffering Contexts ……….. 1238
Fields………… 1241
Modules…….. 1243
Interfaces …… 1245
Using Contexts in ABAP Programs………. 1246
Finding and Displaying a Context ……. 1247
Creating an Instance of a Context …… 1249
Supplying Context Instances with Key Values……. 1250
Querying Data from Context Instances……………… 1251
Message Handling in Contexts ……….. 1253
Message Handling in Table Modules …………… 1254
Message Handling in Function Module Modules…………….. 1256
Working With Contexts – Hints …………….. 1259
Programming Database Updates…………… 1260
Transactions and Logical Units of Work .. 1261
Database Logical Unit of Work (LUW) 1262
SAP LUW…… 1265
SAP Transactions ………… 1269
The R/3 Lock Concept ………. 1270
Example Transaction: SAP Locking … 1274
Update Techniques …………… 1276
Asynchronous Update…… 1277
Updating Asynchronously in Steps ….. 1279
Synchronous Update ……. 1280
Local Update. 1281
Creating Update Function Modules ……… 1282
Calling Update Functions …… 1283
Calling Update Functions Directly……. 1284
Adding Update Task Calls to a Subroutine………… 1285
Special LUW Considerations  1286
Transactions That Call Update Function Modules. 1287
Dialog Modules that Call Update Function Modules…………….. 1288
Error Handling for Bundled Updates …….. 1289
ABAP Objects …….. 1291
What is Object Orientation? …. 1292
What are ABAP Objects?……… 1295
From Function Groups to Objects…………. 1296
Example …………. 1299
Classes……………… 1300
Overview Graphic……………… 1305
Classes – Introductory Example …………… 1306
Object Handling….. 1307
Overview Graphic……………… 1310
Objects – Introductory Example……………. 1311
Declaring and Calling Methods……………… 1312
Methods in ABAP Objects – Example …… 1315
Inheritance …………. 1327
Inheritance: Overview Graphic…………….. 1332
Inheritance: Introductory Example ……….. 1335
Interfaces…………… 1337
Overview Graphics……………. 1340
Interfaces – Introductory Example ………… 1341
Triggering and Handling Events……………. 1343
Overview Graphic……………… 1346
Events: Introductory Example ……………… 1349
Events in ABAP Objects – Example ……… 1351
Class Pools ………… 1357
Appendix …………… 1360
Programs, Screens, and Processing Blocks…………… 1361
Introductory Statements for Programs ….. 1365
Overview of ABAP Calls ………. 1367
Call Contexts …… 1368
Internal Calls . 1369
External Procedure Calls . 1371
External Program Calls …. 1373
Callable Units ….. 1375
ABAP Programs…………… 1376
Procedures… 1378
Screens and Screen Sequences …….. 1380
ABAP Statement Overview…… 1383
ABAP System Fields……………. 1444
ABAP Glossary….. 1468
Syntax Conventions…………….. 1486

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