Category Archives: SAP Fundamentals

SAP Fundamentals Training, Study materials, Help Documents, tutorials

Types of tables in SAP

There are four types of tables in SAP.

Tables containing system control data
These tables fulfill technical control functions within the SAP system.  They are maintained either by SAP or by users with special authorization.

Tables containing basic commercial data
These tables contain data such as postal codes, country keys, and wage types and are filled with default values by SAP.  You will need to check these tables and maintain them where necessary.  For example, different clients may require different control logic.

Tables containing data on the company structure
These tables contain data such as company codes, plants, and storage locations and customer-specific control data such as printer information and authorizations.  These tables are partially filled with sample values by SAP.  You must fully maintain these tables.

Tables for application data
These tables contain transaction and master data and are processed using SAP applications.

SAP lock mechanism details

The SAP System is equipped with a special lock mechanism that synchronizes access to data on the database. The purpose of the lock mechanism is to prevent two transactions from changing the same data on the database simultaneously.Locks are defined generically as “lock objects” in the Data Dictionary. A lock request is a specific instance of a lock object and locks a certain database object, such as a correction or a table entry. SAP Lock entries are usually set and deleted automatically when user programs access a data object and release it again.

Contents of this SAP lock mechanism details

The SAP Lock Concept (BC-CST-EQ)…5
Functions of the R/3 Lock Concept… 6
The Owner Concept ……….. 10
The Lock Table …. 13
Lock Collisions… 16
Cumulation of Locks………. 19
Questions and Answers Regarding Locks…. 21
Important Profile Parameters for the Lock Concept…. 25
Managing Lock Entries …… 27
Choosing and Displaying Lock Entries ……… 29
Deleting Lock Entries……… 32
Testing Lock Management  34
Displaying Lock Statistics. 35
Analyzing and Rectifying Problems  37

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Difference between Database LUW and SAP LUW

In the case of the database, an LUW is a sequence of data operations that cannot be divided up. The operations are either carried out in full or not at all. Database LUWs are modules which go to make up the database procedures for consistent data processing. An R/3 transaction can include several database LUWs (see example above), each of which can be terminated with a database COMMIT, which is generated automatically.

By way of contrast, an LUW for the R/3 System is a business process, which cannot be divided up. The process is either executed in full or not at all. The SAP LUW of an R/3 transaction usually has to contain several database LUWs. Under normal circumstances, it contains a dialog transaction (which maps a business process), and the command for writing the data to the database (update).

Classification System to classify all types of object in SAP

The classification system allows you to use characteristics to describe all types of objects, and to group similar objects in classes – to classify objects, in other words, so that you can find them more easily later. You then use the classes to help you to find objects more easily, using the characteristics defined in them as search criteria. This ensures that you can find objects with similar or identical characteristics as quickly as possible.

This guide about Classification System to classify all types of object in SAP  contains

Classification System (CA-CL) ……7
Class Types………… 9
Selecting a Class Type ……… 11
Classes 12
Creating, Changing, and Displaying Classes……. 13
Maintaining Basic Data …… 15
Choose Organizational Area………. 17
Keywords………. 19
Entering Characteristics ….. 20
Entering Texts … 22
Linking Documents…………. 23
Standards ……… 24
Additional Data.. 25
Creating a Class (Example) .. 26
Creating a Class Using a Template …… 28
Renaming a Class  29
Deleting a Class… 30
Deleting a Characteristic with Assigned Values.. 32
Overwriting Characteristics . 33
Overwriting a Characteristic ……………. 35
Updating Overwritten Values ………….. 36
Splitting and Merging Classes………….. 37
Calling a Class List …………… 39
Producing a Where-Used List …………… 40
User Settings …….. 41
Creating / Changing User Profiles…….. 42
User Settings: Finding Objects…………. 43
User Settings: Value Assignment……… 45
General Settings.. 47
Defining How Default Values Work……. 48
Classification …….. 49
Assigning an Object to Classes………… 50
Classifying a Material (Example) …….. 52
Assigning Objects/Classes to a Class . 53
Classification Status…………. 55
Mass Release of Classifications ……… 56
Mass Release of Classifications ……… 57
Check for Same Classification………….. 59
Defining a Standard Class…. 60
Classifying Different Object Types……. 61
Change Documents…………… 63
Entering Values …. 64
Restricting Intervals………… 66
Entering Multiple Values …. 67
Value Assignment Functions……………. 68
Single-Value and Multiple-Value Characteristics. 71
Creating / Changing Characteristic Groupings…. 72
Processing the Interface Design ……… 73
Class Hierarchy …. 75
Assigning Classes to a Class …………… 77
Assigning Classes to Superior Classes …………… 79
Inherited Characteristics …… 81
Restricting the Allowed Values…………. 82
Restricting the Allowed Values Dynamically…….. 84
Same Allowed Values (Example 1)….. 85
Same Allowed Values (Example 2)….. 86
Inconsistencies in a Class Hierarchy… 87
Inconsistencies in Multiple Classification………… 89
Graphical Maintenance of Class Hierarchies ……. 90
Checks in Hierarchy Maintenance …… 93
Multiple Classification ………. 94
Object Hierarchy.. 96
Object Dependencies in Classification  98
Local and Global Object Dependencies………….. 100
Object Dependencies for Characteristics……….. 101
Object Dependencies for Characteristic Values  102
Syntax of Object Dependencies………. 103
Characteristic Preconditions (Example) …………. 106
Characteristic Selection Conditions (Example.)  107
Conditional Action for a Characteristic (Example) …………. 108
Characteristic Procedures (Example)  109
Characteristic Value Preconditions (Example) .. 110
Action for a Characteristic (Example)  111
Finding Initial Classes …….. 112
Finding a Class via Generic Entry …… 113
Finding a Class via Matchcode……….. 114
Finding a Class via Characteristics…. 115
Finding Root Classes of a Class Type ……………. 117
Finding Objects .. 118
Starting the Find Object Function …… 119
Finding Objects in Other Applications……………. 120
Using Additional Characteristics to Find Objects ………….. 121
Defining the Comparison Type ……….. 122
Executing a String Search.. 123
Find with Filter… 124
Find by Class Type………….. 125
Finding Objects in Third-Party Catalogs ………… 126
Search Result….. 128
Functions in Search Results …………. 130
List of Frequently Used Functions …. 134
Reselect………….. 136
System Performance……….. 137
Creating Value Statistics …. 140
Find Objects in Subordinate Classes. 141
Finding Objects with Inherited Characteristics (Example) .. 142
Finding Objects Without Inherited Characteristics (Example) …………. 144
Setting up Tables for Finding Objects ……………. 145
Engineering Change Management in the Classification System ……. 147
Changes with Effectivity….. 149
Characteristics (Example)  152
Assigning Characteristics to a Class (Example)  154
Classification (Example)… 155
Changes with a Valid-From Date …….. 156
Mass Change for Assigned Values …. 157
Copy Values Assigned to Object…….. 158
Set and Change Values……. 160
Assign Values in Matrix …… 162
Reporting in the classification system …………… 163
Producing a Class List…….. 164
Display Class without Superior ………. 165
Displaying a Class Hierarchy………….. 166
Producing an Object List…. 168
Comparing Objects …………. 169
Displaying the Classification Status .. 170
Copying Standards Data….. 171
Copying DIN Standards …… 172
Copying Characteristic Data Records 173
Creating a Material from a Standard .. 174
Classifying a Material with a Standard……………. 175
Enhancements in the Classification System…… 176

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Namespaces and Naming Conventions in SAP

SAP has reserved name ranges for customer objects and SAP objects. Use these customer name ranges to make sure that your objects are not overwritten by SAP objects during the import of corrections or an upgrade.This Namespaces and Naming Conventions in SAP pdf tutorial  lists the customer name ranges for the different system objects.

Contents of this Namespaces and Naming Conventions in SAP material

Namespaces and Naming Conventions (BC-CTS-NAM)… 5
Customer Name Ranges………….6
Development in Reserved Namespaces 11
Reservation of Namespaces …..12
Releasing Namespaces ………….13
Setting Up a Namespace for Development………14
Releasing a Namespace for Repairs ….17
Development in Namespaces….19
Definition of Naming Conventions ………20
Protection of Naming Conventions in the ABAP Workbench …….21
Maintaining Naming Conventions ……….22
Reservations in Development Namespaces…….23
Reservations in the General Customer Name Range ……24
Finding Out the Object Type ID …….25
Namespace Information System………….26

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